Early Republic Timeline
1788 Constitution ratified.
1789 Washington inaugurated President - establishes cabinet with Departments of State, War, and  Treasury.
1789 Judiciary Act of 1789 - creates Supreme Court with six justices and provides for lower courts.
1789 French Revolution overthrows French monarchy.
1789 Tariff of 1789 ­ protective tariff instituted.
1789 Congress submits the Bill of Rights for Ratification.
1790 Hamilton submits his Reports on Public Credit ­ outlines his financial program concerning  assumption of state debts.
1791 The Bank of the United States created, enacting second element of Hamiltonís financial plan.  Launches constitutional debate between Jefferson and Hamilton. 
1791 Hamilton submits his Report on Manufactures to Congress ­ calls for high tariff, federal aid for  public works projects to promote U.S. industry
1791 Congress passes Whiskey Tax, on recommendation of Hamilton.
1791 Bill of Rights ratified by the states.
1793 France declares war on Britain.
1793 Proclamation of Neutrality issued by Washington in war between Britain and France.
1793 Citizen Genet affair - furthers tension between America and France.
1794 Whiskey Rebellion erupts in rural Pennsylvania over whiskey tax. Washington calls out 13,000  troops to put down the insurrection.
1795 Jayís Treaty with Britain ­ ratified by narrow margin in the senate. Arouses controversy,  particularly along sectional and party lines. 
1796 Pinckneyís Treaty with Spain­ resolves boundary disputes in the South and West.
1796 Washingtonís Farewell Address ­ warns against divisiveness of political parties and against  entangling alliances with European nations. 
1797 John Adams (Federalist)  inaugurated President, Republican Thomas Jefferson is Vice President. 
1797 XYZ Affair ­ results in an undeclared naval war (quasi-war) with France, and sharp rise in  anti-French sentiment.
1798 Alien and Sedition Acts passed by Federalist Congress - inspired in part by anti-French  hysteria and designed to silence Republican opposition and strengthen federal government.
1798 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions drafted by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison ­ protest  the usurpation of power by federal government under Alien and Sedition acts. Promote compact  theory of government (state sovereignty) and doctrine of nullification.
1800 Election decided by the House of Representatives due to a deadlock ­ Thomas Jefferson is  chosen, Aaron Burr becomes Vice President. These difficulties result in the 12th Amendment to  the Constitution, passed in 1804. 
1800 Washington D.C. established as the nationís capital - moved from Philadelphia. Washington  D.C. is officially incorporated as a city in 1802.
1800 Treaty of Mortefontaine ­ restores normal diplomatic relations between France and the U.S.,  ending undeclared naval war. 
1801 John Marshall, a Federalist, is nominated Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President  Adams.
1801 "Midnight Justices" appointed by President Adams ­ opposition to which will lead to 1803 case  Marbury v. Madison.
1802 Thomas Jefferson inaugurated as President.  Aaron Burr is Vice President.
1802 Excise duties, including controversial whiskey tax, abolished by Congress.
1803 Naturalization Act of 1798, part of the Alien and Sedition act, nullified by Congress.
1803 Marbury v. Madison ­ the Supreme Court rules an act of Congress null and void, thus  establishing the principle of judicial review.
1803 Louisiana Purchase ­ for approximately $15 million, the United States purchases the territory  from France, thus doubling the land of the United States. Jefferson and Democratic-Republican  Congress take a loose construction of the Constitution.
1804 Lewis and Clark Expedition, sponsored by the U.S. government, sets out
1804 Federalist associate justice of the Supreme Court Samuel Chase impeached by Republican  House of Representatives for partisan conduct unbecoming to a judge. Senate acquits in 1805.
1805 Hostilities between France and Britain are renewed; harassment of U.S. neutral shipping is  reinstituted, leading to public antipathy toward the British.
1805 Napoleonic wars continue to disrupt American commercial shipping. 
1806 Thomas Jefferson inaugurated for his second term as President. George Clinton is Vice President. 
1806 Report on the continuing British interference with commercial shipping of neutral nations,  including America, delivered to Congress by Secretary of State James Madison. Senate issues a  resolution condemning British actions as "unprovoked aggression."
1806 First Non-Importation act passed by Congress - forbids the importation from England of  enumerated items. Becomes effective in 1807.
1806 Ban on all slave importation to the United States, to become effective January 1, 1808,  requested by President Jefferson in a message to Congress.
1807 Monroe-Pinckney Treaty, negotiated between U.S. and Great Britain, is received by President  Jefferson ­ failure for American diplomacy because Britain has made no concessions on problems  of impressment and interference with American commercial shipping. Jefferson never submits  the treaty to Congress; hopes to reopen negotiations.
1807 Leopard-Chesapeake Affair ­ British ship, the Leopard, tries to stop the U.S.S. Chesapeake  off the coast of Virginia. British commander insists that four men on the Chesapeake are  British deserters and demands their surrender. American commander refuses to acquiesce;  British open fire. The incident brings Britain and the U.S. to the brink of war. 
1807 Robert Fultonís steamboat, the Clermont, travels from New York City to Albany, inaugurating  the era of commercially successful steamboat navigation. 
1807 First Non-Importation act becomes effective ­ fails to secure any concessions from the British in  the matter of harassment of American commercial shipping. 
1807 Embargo Act requested by President Jefferson in a message to Congress ­ Federalist faction tries,  but fails, to block this measure; embargo on all trade with foreign nations becomes law. Forbids  all American ships to set sail for foreign ports. The act is widely protested in states with  maritime interests, such as New England.
1808 Second and third Embargo acts are passed, reinforcing the first ­ poses economic hardships on  New England states and does not achieve concessions from Britain. 
1809 Enforcement Act passed ­ designed to enforce Embargo Acts by halting smuggling activities;  leads to further protest in New England, and interpretation of the Embargo Act as pro-French  and anti-British. 
1809 New England Conventions called to nullify the Embargo. Governor of Connecticut, John  Trumbull, maintains that the Embargo Acts are an unconstitutional exercise of power by the  federal government. 
1809 Non-Intercourse Act signed by President Jefferson in response to widespread opposition to the  Embargo Acts ­ reopens all overseas commerce to American shipping, except that of France and  Britain. Should France, Britain, or both, halt their interference with neutral shipping, trade  may resume with these nations as well. 
1809 James Madison inaugurated as President. George Clinton is Vice President. 
1809 Proclamation reinstating trade with Great Britain issued by President Madison.
1809 Reinstatement of Non-Intercourse Act by President Madison.
1810 Maconís Bill #2 passed by Congress - authorizes President Madison to reopen trade with Britain  and France, but stipulates that he may restore non-intercourse with either nation if interference  with American shipping does not cease. 
1810 Midterm elections drastically alter political alignment of both houses ­ prevalent nationalism  and pro-war sentiment sweep the "War Hawks" into office.
1811 Reinstatement of non-intercourse policy against Great Britain.
1812 President Madison asks Congress for a declaration of war against Great Britain. Congress  supports war, except for most New England states and other maritime and commercial states  such as New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. 
1812 James Monroe is inaugurated for his second term as President. He has defeated antiwar  candidate DeWitt Clinton of New York. Madisonís Vice President is Elbridge Gerry. 
1814 Hartford Convention secretly convenes - 26 Federalist antiwar delegates gather to adopt a  series of statesí rights proposals in the form of amendments to the Constitution. News of the  New Orleans victory brings the Convention to an end, and the Convention will become an object  of public derision, as well as an excuse to levy accusations of conspiracy and treason, thus  hastening the demise of the Federalist party.
1814 Treaty of Ghent signed by American and British peace commissioners, ending the war of 1812 ­  provides for release of prisoners and restoration of conquered territory, but does not resolve  maritime issues.
1814 Battle of New Orleans - unaware that peace has been declared, Andrew Jackson leads   American soldiers into the most spectacular land victory of the war.
1815 Treaty of Ghent unanimously ratified by the Senate
1816 Second Bank of the United States established.
1816 Tariff Act of 1816 passed by Congress - perpetuates protective duties set during  the War of 1812  to shelter developing American industries facing foreign competition. 
1817 Federally financed public works projects, such as roads and canals, passed by Congress ­ New  England Federalists oppose the bill, fearing its impetus to westward expansion. This bill is  vetoed by Madison, who does not accept the implied powers interpretation of the Constitution  with regard to federally funded internal improvements.
1817 James Monroe is inaugurated as President. Federalists lose seats in Congress. Daniel Tomkins of  New York is Vice President. The Democratic-Republican party has adopted the nationalistic  principles of the waning Federalist party, thus ushering in the "Era of Good Feelings"
1817 Erie Canal project is launched.
1819 Dartmouth College v. Woodward - Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall issues the  opinion that a private corporate charter is a contract and therefore cannot be revised or broken  by a state. Business  growth is encouraged; corporations are thus ruled free of state control.
1819 Adams-Onis Treaty is signed ­ Spain cedes East Florida to the U.S. and renounces any claims to  West Florida.
1819 McCulloch v. Maryland - Supreme Court finds that a state (Maryland) cannot tax an agency of  the United States, including the federal bank, thus upholding the principle of federal  sovereignty. The court also upholds the right of Congress to create the bank, under Hamiltonian  doctrines of "implied powers" and "loose construction." 
1821 President Monroe and Vice-President Daniel Tompkins are inaugurated for their second terms in  office. 
1823 Monroe Doctrine presented to Congress by President Monroe - proclaims that the Americas will  no longer be the object of European colonization, and that the U.S. would consider dangerous the  attempt of any European nation to extend its political systems to the Western Hemisphere. The  U.S. will not interfere with any existing European colonies in the New World, or interfere in  European internal affairs. 
1824 Gibbons v. Ogden - Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall rules that a monopoly granted by  the New York State legislature for steamboat navigation between New York and New Jersey is  unconstitutional because only the Federal Government has jurisdiction over interstate commerce.