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Unit Nine

The Nation Enters the World Stage:
Foreign Policy in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century

Unit Outline
Day One
White Man's Burden: The Imperialist Impulse 
Divine, pages 630-638 
Supplement: DBQ on Imperialism 
Why did the United States become increasingly involved in events overseas    during the late 19th century?  In what sense did imperialism represent an    extension of previous American foreign policy?  In what sense did it represent    a departure from previous foreign policy? 

Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Riders, Washingtonís Farewell Address, Monroe Doctrine, Manifest Destiny, Imperialism, Social Darwinism, Josiah Strong, William Henry Seward, Sewardís Folly (Alaska Purchase), Venezuela Boundary Dispute, Hawaii,   Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaiian Annexation, Samoan Islands, Alfred Mahan, the New   Navy, 

  Homework Questions: 
  1. According to the Divine text, how was the American expansion of the 1890s different   from the American expansion of earlier eras? 

  2. During the late 19th century, what factors ? technological, economic, geo-political and ideological ? encouraged United States interest in events overseas? 

  3. What was the Venezuela boundary dispute?  How might it be seen as a reaffirmation   of the principles of the Monroe Doctrine? What did it indicate about the way the   United States saw its role in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere? 

  4. Why were Americans traditionally interested in and attracted to Hawaii? 

  5. What were the causes of the Hawaiian Revolution of 1893?  How did the United States respond to the revolution? 

  6. Why did some Americans favor the annexation of Hawaii?  Why did some oppose Hawaiian annexation? 

  7. Why did some Americans including Alfred Thayer Mahan favor the creation of a "new" and larger U.S. Navy during the late 19th century?  How would this new navy   serve American interests overseas? 

  8. Select TWO documents from the DBQ and for each:  a) Paraphrase the document and   b)explain how the document might be used to argue that imperialism was either a   departure from and/or an extension of previous American foreign policy.

Day Two
The Spanish-American War: The Splendid Little War 
Divine, pages 638-647 (including tan pages) 
Supplement: McKinley, "War Message" 

What are the immediate and underlying causes of United States involvement in the Spanish-American war?  In what sense did the war reflect the imperialist impulse of the United States during the late 19th century? 

Spanish-American War, Cuba, General Weyler, reconcentration policy, yellow   journalism, William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer, William McKinley, the   Maine, deLôme letter, Teller Amendment, McKinleyís War Message, "smoked Yankees", George Dewey, Battle of Manila Bay, San Juan Hill, Rough Riders, 

  Homework Questions: 
  1. What factors led to friction between Cuban rebels and the Spanish rulers of Cuba during the late 19th century?  How did Americans perceive this conflict?  What stance did the U.S. government initially adopt towards this conflict? 

  2. What was the deLôme letter?  What did it indicate about how Spain viewed the United States?  What impact did it have on the American publicís view of Spain and Spainís role in Cuba? 

  3. How does the rise of the newspaper empires of William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer reflect the societal and technological changes brought on by industrialization? 

  4. What was "yellow journalism"?  How did American newspaper reports of the war between Cuban rebels and the Spanish reflect Americansí views of the conflict?  How   might yellow journalism have promoted war between the United States and Spain? 

  5. What was the Maine and why was it stationed off Cuba?  What caused the Maine to explode?  At the time, how did Americanís interpret the explosion of the Maine? What impact did the Maine incident have on the American decision to engage in war   with Spain? 

  6. What role did African-Americans play in the Spanish-American War?  How were black regiments treated in the American South?  Why might blacks have felt    ambivalent about serving the United States in the war? 

  7. Why did some call the Spanish-American War, a "splendid little war?"  Why was it such a popular war among Americans? 

  8. In his "War Message" why does President McKinley urge Congress to declare war against Spain?

Day Three
The Debate Over Empire and the Little Known War in the Philippines 
Divine, pages 647-651 
Last names A-M - Write out answers to homework questions 6 and 8 
Last names N-Z - Write out answers to homework questions 7 and 9 
What arguments did Americans make in support of and in opposition to American acquisition of colonies in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War?  What did U.S. actions in the Philippines, Puerto Rico indicate about the way Americans viewed those lands it colonized? 

Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, Treaty of Paris, Anti-imperialism, self-  determination, Anti-Imperialist League, Philippine?American War, Emilio Auginaldo, Taft Commission, the Insular Cases (DeLima v. Bidwell, Downes v.   Bidwell, etc.), Foraker Act, Leonard Wood, Platt Amendment, Jones Act 

  Homework Question: 
  1. Why did the proposed annexation of the Philippines create such conflict among Americans? What were the arguments for and against the annexation of the    Philippines? 

  2. What arguments did Anti-imperialists use to oppose annexation of the Philippines   and imperialism more generally?  Why might individuals as diverse as Samuel   Gompers, Andrew Carnegie, and Booker T. Washington have all opposed imperialism? 
  What impact might this diversity have had on the effectiveness of the anti-   imperialist movement? 
  3. How might both imperialism and anti-imperialism be seen as progressive? 

  4. Traditionally, why might historians have rarely written about the Philippine-  American War? 

  5. Why had Philippine leader Emilio Auginaldo supported the United States in the   Spanish-American War?  Why did Auginaldo, who had supported the U.S. in the   Spanish-American War, then lead a revolt against the U.S. in 1899? 

  6. What was the Taft Commission?  What did it indicate about the way Americans saw   their role in the Philippines?  In what sense was the Taft Commission progressive? 

  7. What principle did the U.S. Supreme Court assert in the Insular Cases (Dooley v. U.S., Downes v. Bidwell, etc.)?  What did this suggest about the way Americans   viewed the peoples of territories annexed by the United States during the late 19th   century? 

  8. What was the Foraker Act?  What did it suggest about the way Americans viewed   the United Statesí role in the Western Hemisphere during the late 19th and early 20th   century? 

  9. What were the provisions of the Platt Amendment? What did it suggest about the   way Americans viewed the United Statesí role in the Western Hemisphere during the   late 19th and early 20th century?

Day Four
The Open Door and the Big Stick: Progressive Foreign Policy in Asia and Latin America 
Divine, pages 651-654 and 729-735 
Supplement: The Open Door Notes 
Supplement: Roosevelt,  "The Roosevelt Corollary" 
What type of relationship did the U.S. forge with the nations of Asia and Latin America during the early 20th century?  What were American motives for  establishing such relationships?  In what sense were these policies progressive? 

China, sphere of influence, John Hay, Open Door policy, Boxer Rebellion, Hay Herrán   Treaty, Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, Panama Canal, Theodore Roosevelt, Roosevelt   Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine), Taft-Katsura Agreement, Gentlemenís Agreement,   Root-Takahira Agreement, William Taft, dollar diplomacy, progressivism 

  Homework Questions: 
  1. What was the Open Door policy?  What was the United Statesí motivation for   formulating such a policy? 

  2. What was the Boxer Rebellion?  How did the United States respond to the Boxer Rebellion?  How might the United Statesí response to the Boxer Rebellion be seen as consistent with the Open Door policy? 

  3. What does the United Statesí response to the Boxer Rebellion indicate about the Open Door policy? 

  4. Why did TR want to build a canal in Panama?  Why did Colombia (which controlled   Panama) oppose the proposed canal? Why did TR support Panamanian independence from Colombia? 

  5. Why were TR and his supporters proud of his actions to secure a canal in Panama?  Why were other Americans embarrassed by TRís actions? 

  6. What events in Latin America promoted TR to issue the Roosevelt Corollary? What were the main declarations of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? 

  7. What was the Gentlemenís Agreement?  What did it suggest about the way Americans viewed Japanese at the time? 

  8. What was Taftís "dollar diplomacy"?  In what sense was it an extension of  Rooseveltís Corollary?

Day Five
Making the World Safe for Democracy: The U.S. and World War I 
Divine, pages 733-734, 728-729 and 735 -741 
Supplement: Wilson, "War Message" 
Supplement: The Zimmermann Note 
Why did the United States initially avoid entering the war in Europe?  What are the immediate and underlying reasons the United States eventually decided to enter the war?  In what sense can both actions be seen as progressive? 

progressivism, moral diplomacy, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Central Powers, Allied Powers, Woodrow Wilson, neutrality, the Lusitania, u-boat (submarine), the Arabic,   the Arabic Pledge, the Sussex Pledge, Zimmermann Note, Wilsonís "War Message" 

  Homework Questions: 
  1. What did President Wilson mean when, in response to the attack on the Lusitania, he said, "There is such a thing as a nation being so right that it does not need to convince others by force"? 

  2. What were the immediate causes of the conflict between the Central Powers and the Allies Powers in Europe? 

  3. What policy did the U.S. government formulate in response to the outbreak of World   War I in Europe?  Why? Though the U.S. maintained a policy of neutrality, why did many Americans tend to sympathize with the Allied Powers? 

  4. How did progressives respond to the war in Europe? Why? 

  5. How did the American economy benefit from the war in Europe? Why did American economic interests challenge the governmentís policy of neutrality? 
  6. What steps did both Germany and Great Britain to limit American trade? What was Americaís response? Why did the U.S. see Germanyís actions to limit American trade   as more threatening than those of Great Britain? 

  7. How did Americans react to the German sinking of the Lusitania?  Why despite the u-boat attack on the Lusitania did most Americans want to stay out of World War I? 

  8. What steps did Wilson take in response to the u-boat attacks on the Lusitania,  Arabic, and Sussex?  What was Germanyís reply? 

  9. Why was Wilson attacked both by advocates of "preparedness" and by peace-minded progressives for his stance on the war in Europe during the election of 1916?   How did the results of the election of 1916 reflect Americansí ambivalence towards   American participation in the war in Europe? 

  10. On February 1, 1917, why did the Germans reverse their previous policy of restraint and begin sinking all ships, "passenger or merchant, neutral or belligerent, armed or unarmed"? What impact did German policy and its result have on American public   opinion? 

  11. What was the Zimmermann note? What impact did it have on American public opinion? 

  12. In his War Message, what attitude towards war does Wilson express? Why, then, is   he calling for war? What does he mean when he says that the U.S. must enter the war to make the world "safe for democracy"?

Day Six
The Homefront: Unsafe for Democracy?  
Divine, pages 746-752 and 742-743 
Last names A-M - Write out answers to homework questions 1, 4, and 8 
Last names N-Z - Write out answers to homework question 2, 4 and 6 
How did the war effort affect the relationship among government, business and labor? How did the war effort affect the ways in which the government and the American public regarded racial, ethnic, and ideological minorities? 
Committee on Public Information (CPI), Espionage Act of 1917, Sedition Act (of 1918), Red Scare, Russian Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution), Vladmir Lenin, War Industries   Board, Food Administration, Herbert Hoover, Fuel Administration, Railroad    Administration, War Trade Board, War Labor Board, Great Migration, IQ test 

  Homework Questions: 
  1. What was the Committee on Public Information? What impact did it have on the   way Americans viewed Germans and German culture? How did this anti-German   sentiment impact how Americans treated German-Americans? 

  2. What were the Espionage and the Sedition Acts? Why did many Americans believe   that they were necessary? How were these acts used against German-Americans,   socialists, and labor? 

  3. How did Americans and the American government react to the Bolshevik Revolution and Leninís rise to power? 

  4. Select ONE of the following. Explain what it was,  why it was thought to be   necessary, what impact it had on business, and what impact it had on the relationship   between government and business: the War Industries Board, the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration, the Railroad Administration, the War Trade Board. 

  5. What was Wilsonís stance towards labor? What did he hope to achieve? 
  6. What was the War Labor Board? What impact did it have on the relationship between government and labor? How did it help Wilsonís goals? 

  7. What impact did the war have on womenís involvement in the labor force? 
  8. What impact did the war have on African Americans? How did the war affect the   demographics of northern urban centers? How were blacks treated in these cities? How   did the wartime experience create a "New Negro"? 

  9. Why did the War Department use the newly-developed IQ test in their    psychological examination of military recruits? In what ways did the results of these   tests confirm stereotypes of African Americans and "new" immigrants? How did the   authors of the tests manipulate the tests in order to produce results that confirmed their stereotypes?

Day Seven
Wilsonian Idealism and the Return To Isolation  
Divine, pages 741 (bottom), 744-746, and 752-757 
Supplement:  Wilson, "The Fourteen Points"
Supplement:  "Article X of the League of Nations" 
In what sense were Wilsonís Fourteen Points and (most of all) his plan for a  League of Nations an extension of the progressive vision?  Why did many in government Wilsonís vision?  Why did the Senate fail to ratify the Versailles Treaty and reject U.S. membership in the League of Nations? 

World War I, Russian Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution), Vladmir Lenin, Selective   Service Act, trench warfare, Wilsonís Fourteen Points, self-determination, free trade, Wilsonian Idealism, Treaty of Versailles, Big Four, reparations, League of Nations,   Article X, Henry Cabot Lodge, Warren Harding 

  Homework Questions: 
  1. Why did the situation look bleak for the U.S. and the Allies when the U.S. entered WWI in April, 1917? Though American participation in the war was small compared to   that of European nations, in what sense did Americans help to turn the tide of the war? 

  2. Why was WWI considered particularly devastating to the men who fought in it? 

  3. What were the essential principles underlying Wilsonís Fourteen Points? How do these principles reflect Wilsonís initial goals upon entering the war? In what sense do   these principles reflect Wilsonís progressive idealism? 

  4. Why were the leaders of the other Allied nations skeptical of Wilsonís Fourteen Points? How were their goals for the war different from Wilsonís? 

  5. To what extent did the Treaty of Versailles represent a rejection of Wilsonís proposals? Which of his war goals were included in the Treaty? 

  6. What was the League of Nations? What was Article X of the League of Nations?  Why were Americans particularly skeptical of Article X of the League of Nations? 

  7. Why did the U.S. Senate refuse to ratify the Treaty of Versailles? 

There will be no test on this unit
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