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Introduction to the course: Old and New Worlds
||Intoduction to the course: The Use and Abuse of History
Why is history most often told from the perspective of the victor? What problems does this create? What special burden does this place on us as historians?
||Native Americans: Nation v. Tribe?
Divine, pages 2-8
How can we classify Native American societies? Why is it important
to understand Native American nations as separate and distinct in the context
of the oncoming conquest?
2. In what ways did contact with Europeans transform Native American societies?
3. How did Native Americans perceive the arrival of the Europeans? How did Europeans perceive the Native Americans? How did European perceptions of Native Americans differ?
4. How are the Sioux and Osage creation myths different? Similar?
5. What impact did European contact have on Native American culture? To what extent did Indians embrace or reject European influence? What impact did contact with Native Americans have on Europeans?
6. How did Native American and European attitudes toward land and commerce differ? (text page 8 and refer to Supplement) How did these differences undermine Native American independence? To what extent and in what ways did Native Americans become dependent on Europeans?
||Interpreting History: The Legacy of Columbus
Divine, pages 12-21
2. Why did Spain take the lead in European exploration of the New World? What did the Spanish seek to gain from the New World?
3. What areas of the New World did the Spanish colonize?
4. What relationship developed between the Spanish and the Native
6. How did the French relationship with the Native Americans differ from that of the Spanish?
7. Why did the English lag behind the French and Spanish in their colonization of the New World?
||The Problem of Columbus
Supplement: Howard Zinn "Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress"
In preparation for the debate outline ten points that support your
2. How does Las Casas depict the native populations?
3. Contrast the presentations of Columbus's conquests as told by Bartolomeo de las Casas and Samuel Eliot Morrison. How might we account for these differing stories?
4. If Zinn's point is not to "condemn Columbus in absentia," then what is his point?
5. What two interpretations about settlers and natives does Zinn present? To which one do you subscribe, if any?
6. What is your definition of progress? How did Europeans define progress? According to Zinn, is "progress" an absolute good? Support your response with evidence from the text.
||Settling the Chesapeake: A Precarious Paradise
Divine, skim pages 26-28 and 32-34, read 34-39 (bottom), skim 39-42, and read 70-73
What attracted settlers to the Chesapeake region? How did Chesapeake society reflect its settlers' goals in coming to the New World?
Walter Raleigh, Roanoke, Richard Hakluyt, Anglican Church (Church of England), joint-stock company, London (Virginia) Company, Jamestown, John Smith, Powhatans, Pochahantas, John Rolfe, the “starving time”, tobacco, House of Burgesses, headright system, indentured servant, George Calvert, Maryland, “Act Concerning Religion”, planter, freeman, Creole
2. In general, what inspired people to leave England and venture to the New World?
3. What factors combined to encourage James I to issue a charter to the London Company for the settlement of Virginia?
4. What specifically attracted individuals to the Virginia settlement of Jamestown?
5. What hardships did early Virginians face? What caused some of these hardships?
6. In what ways did tobacco “save” the Virginia colony?
7. What were the patterns of migration to the Chesapeake? What types of people were attracted to the Chesapeake colony? What impact did this have on the composition of Virginian society?
8. What was an indentured servant? What was his/her legal and social status?
9. In what sense did Maryland resemble Virginia, its Chesapeake neighbor? In what sense did its early history differ from that of Virginia?
10. How did the demographics of Virginia affect family structure?
11. How did tobacco shape the social structure of Virginia? What main social classes constituted Virginian society? What were the distinguishing characteristics of each?
12. To what degree was social mobility possible in Virginia?
13. Why were social institutions (schools, churches) slow to
develop prominence in Virginia? Why were cities and towns also slow to
||Slavery, Servitude and Class Conflict in Chesapeake
Divine, pages 73-75, 76-77, and 82-84 (on Bacon's rebellion)
Supplement: Morgan, "Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox"
Write out answer to homework question 5 and 6
What factors led to the development of slavery in the American colonies?
How did slavery and freedom coexist in the colonial Chesapeake?
2. What was the status of blacks in early 17th century Virginia? What does the example of Anthony Johnson indicate about the status of blacks, and about the foundations of racial slavery in colonial America?
3. What is a paradox? What is the central paradox with which Edmund Morgan (author of the supplement) wrestles?
4. Explain how overpopulation in seventeenth century England contributes to the eventual rise of slavery in America.
5. What were the complaints of Bacon and his followers? In what sense might these complaints be seen as class-based? How might the rebellion be viewed as a class conflict?
6. How does Morgan answer the following questions? Why did racial slavery begin to replace indentured servitude as the main source of plantation labor? Why and in what ways does the legal status of black people in the South change toward the end of the late seventeenth century?
7. How might you argue, based on Morgan's analysis, that radical democracy in the seventeenth century depended upon slavery?
8. Was slavery caused by racism? If not, than what did cause slavery, and how do you explain the present reality of racism?
||Puritan New England: Building a City on a Hill
Divine, pages 42-45, 48-50
Supplement: Winthrop, "A Model of Christian Charity"
Supplement: "Anne Hutchinson is Banished"
What was the overriding purpose of the Puritan settlement of New England? How did the society the Puritans created reflect the reason the came to New England?
2. Why did they form the Mayflower Compact? What is its significance?
3. In what way did Puritan religious beliefs diverge from those of the Anglican Church (Church of England)? What were their criticism of the Anglican Church? Why did they see America as attractive alternative to life in England?
4. What were the patterns of Puritan migration to Massachusetts Bay? How did Puritan migration differ from migration to the Chesapeake colonies?
5. How does the structure and membership of Massachusetts churches reflect Puritan values and beliefs?
6. How "democratic" was Puritan society? To what degree was it egalitarian?
7. How did the Puritans of Massachusetts deal with those who challenged Puritan ideals? Why?
8. In what ways did the foundations of Rhode Island differ from that of its Puritan New England neighbors?
9. How does John Winthrop depict the Puritan settlers of Massachusetts
Bay in his sermon "A Model of Christian Charity"? How does the sermon
reflect Puritan values?
||Where the Secular and Sacred Meet: Wealth and the Puritan
Divine, pages 64-70
In class slides: New Haven - Commerce and Christianity
How did the Puritans view the wilderness which surrounded them? To what
degree and in what sense were the Puritans interested in material success?
What is the relationship between their interest in material success and
their religious views?
2. What was the role of the family in Puritan New England? How did its importance and structure reflect their religious values?
3. Why was schooling so important to Puritan New Englanders? Why were Massachusetts citizens required to pay taxes to support public schools? Why was schooling so much more important in Puritan New England than in the Chesapeake colonies?
4. What was the role of women in Puritan New England? How did their rights and responsibilities differ from those of their male counterparts?
5. In what ways was the social hierarchy of Puritan New England different from that of England? In what ways was it similar?
6. Whom did the Puritans select as their leaders? Why were these people seen as more fit to lead?
7. To what degree was social mobility possible in New England? How do the sumptuary laws reinforce class distinctions?
8. How did the upper classes of New England view their social inferiors? How did the lower classes view their social betters?
||Comparing Colonial Societies
Divine, pages 50-61
Prepare presentation for "SOAP Convention"
Bring to class, Supplement: DBQ on New England and Chesapeake
What was the cause of the differences between New England and Chesapeake societies and The Middle Colonies? How can one use primary source documents to construct an essay answering this question?
2. How did the Dutch colony of New Netherlands become the English colony of New York?
3. How did Quaker religious beliefs differ from those of members of the Anglican church?
4. Why did the colony of Pennsylvania attract such a diverse group of settlers? How did Pennsylvania’s government encourage such diversity? How might the Quaker beliefs of Pennsylvania’s founders have contributed to the diversity of the colony?
5. What influence did the English colonists of Barbados have on the economic and social structure of the Carolinas?
6. What were the original purposes of the Georgia colony? What types of Englishmen settled there? Over time, in what sense did the economic and social structure of Georgia become similar to the Carolinas, its neighbor?
||Society of American Pioneers Convention
The year is 1760 and the Society of American Pioneers (SOAP) is looking for a site for their first-ever convention. Its decision will have a large impact on the local economy, especially since many members are considering relocating permanently to the new world. Your mission is to help them make their decision by preparing a brief (five minute) presentation reviewing some of the major events since 1607 and touting the advantages of your colony. The director of SOAP will be in town, so you will able to make your case to him directly.
GROUP ONE: CHESAPEAKE (Virginia and Maryland) pp. 34-42
Mission: To stress the advantages of Virginia and the disadvantages
of your main rival, Massachusetts.
GROUP TWO: NEW ENGLAND (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticutt) pp. 42-50
Mission: To stress the advantages of Massachusetts and the disadvantages
of your main rival, Virginia.
GROUP THREE: THE DISSENTERS ( Dutch New Netherland, Quaker Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Carolinas and Georgia) pp. 50-60
Mission: To stress the advantages of any colony you choose and
the disadvantages of your two main rivals, Massachusetts and Virginia.
||Markets, Mercantilism and Material Culture
Divine, pages 79-82 and 110-111
How do New Englanders turn wilderness into a mart? What impact
did Britain’s mercantilist policies have on the relationship between Britain
and the American colonies?
2. What were the Navigation Acts? What did they do? How did they support the goals of the mercantilist system?
3. How did Americans respond to the Navigation Acts?
4. How did capitalism transform the North American environment?
5. How do the Navigation Acts tie Colonial trade to England?
How does this affect American "material culture"?
||Colonial Society: British or American - Material
Culture and Imperial Wars
Divine, pages 112-113 and 120-128
In what ways do the colonists see themselves as British, during the
first half of the eighteenth century? How do the Imperial Wars lead
to the creation of an American identity?
2. Why did upper-class Colonial Americans see the need to create/maintain visible class distinctions? How did the upper class attempt to maintain class distinctions?
3. What were the causes of the imperial wars of the late 17th and early 18th centuries?
4. Why did the colonists develop their own names for these conflicts? What might this indicate about their attitude towards these wars?
5. How might American colonists have viewed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle? In their minds, what was its significance?
6. What was the Albany plan? What does its failure indicate about intercolonial attitudes and British attitudes towards the colonies?
7. How were British attitudes towards America in the Seven Years’ War different from their attitudes towards America in the previous wars?
8. What were the provisions of the Peace of Paris?
9. How did the Seven Years’ War impact the way Americans viewed their relationship with Britain? How did it impact the way the colonies viewed each other? How did the Seven Years’ War impact the way the British viewed the American colonies?
||Test on Unit One|